I'm sure you'll notice plenty of the questions people have about the show are very unimportant and mundane, while others may have been indirectly answered in the show or extraverse (ARG's and out-of-show resources).
My resource comes from DarkUFO [LINK], which is about as complete as I know of. Feel free to browse to that link and read/download the PDF file for answers to any questions that I do not address here... or comment and I will do my best to find the answer.
AS FOR ANY "HOW DOES THE ISLAND WORK" QUESTIONS: The answer is simple, and is explained by the fact that this is a SCI-FI/FANTASY show... "Magic."
And now for a very quick rant, in case you don't like that answer: There are NO such things as elves, fairies, hobbits... Middle Earth is NOT real, and neither is Hogwarts. Midi-chlorians was a horrible cop-out, and nothing happened a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away. You are NOT going to go back in time to live with dinosaurs, and there isn't an alien being who travels around time/space in a police call box. A grove of trees with a pool of oil will NOT make a red curtain appear that leads you to a magic place with a dancing midget, and the Island isn't real. It's a show. The Island is magic. It's called "fantasy" for a reason. Get over it.
Now, on to the stupid questions people apparently feel are important enough to bitch about all these years later!!
Season 1 Unanswered Questions
Season 1 has 80 total mysteries, 6 unanswered mysteries
Pilot (Part 1)
How did Jack end up in the jungle?
[Not even gonna guess on this one... I just figure it's a "production" thing that just looked neat.]
What happened to the actual body of Christian Shephard?
[The smoke monster took it, so he could freely look like him without someone saying "Hey, but I have the body right here... you can't be him." ???]
What is the significance of Walt’s powers?
[Unfortunately, this is what happens when you base a storyline around someone who is about to hit puberty.]
What was the “Tampa Job”?
[Wow, this SO does not matter.]
Deus Ex Machina
How did Locke have a vision of the drug smugglers’ plane crashing?
[The Island gave him a vision, or the Smoke Monster did somehow. Magic.]
Born to Run
How did Walt know about the hatch after Locke touched him and why didn’t he want him to open it?- Unanswered.
[See the answer to the above question.]
There, that does it for season 1... Now back to watching season 2!